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MCOM 4302 (Osei-Hwere): Media Communication Ethics

Research in Media Ethics

Sample APA Paper 7th Edition

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) has an excellent example of an "APA 7 Student Paper" written in APA 7th edition style, with references.  Unfortunately, now it is important on OWL to ignore any citation generator powered by Citation Machine.  It is not an OWL product and is not endorsed or recommended by the Cornette Library.

Citation Basics

Cornette Library Citation Help

 
  1. Go to the Cornette Library homepage
  2. Click on blue button:  Cite
  3. Click on APA 7th
  4. Will go to online "Style and Grammar Guidelines" from the APA
  5. Can look for tips under "References" or "In-Text Citations."

If you are not sure how to cite sources, contact the WTAMU writing center or email a librarian.

More Tips for Citing - APA Style 7th Edition

The sites below will be helpful when you do not have the APA style manual in hand.

What is a DOI?

A digital object identifier (DOI) provides a persistent link to online content.  So a DOI provides permanent access to an online journal article, even if the journal ceases or a database drops that particular journal. 

APA Style:  DOIs and URLs explains when to include them in a citation, correct format, and shorteners.

APA Style Manual - 7th Edition

To cite articles using APA style, you must follow the rules of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.  Copies are available to use, but not check out, from:

  • Research & Access (R&A) Desk, 1st floor (main service desk)
  • Government Documents Desk, 2nd floor

Just ask for the "APA style manual".

NOTE:  During COVID-19 precautions, these books will not be available for in-house use/checkout.  Please ask for citation assistance at the R&A Desk.

Examples of APA Citation - APA Style Manual

To see examples of citations of journal articles in the APA style manual, read pages 316 through 319 of the 7th edition.

The basic citation information for an online journal article is:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., & Author, D. D. (year).  Title of article.  Title of Periodical, xx(xx), pp-pp.  https://doi.org/##.####/xxxxxxxxxx

How to Cite a "Print" Journal Article

General Rules

As always, your instructor may choose to modify some APA requirements.  The instructor has the final word on APA style used for their class.  That said, notice some general rules about a journal citation in APA format:

  • A comma is written before the ampersand ("&"), even if there are only two authors.
  • The title of the article is capitalized with sentence-style capitalization (most words are lowercase, the first word of the title is uppercase, proper names are uppercase, the first word after a colon is uppercase).
  • All major words in journal titles are capitalized.
  • The title of the journal is italicized.
  • The volume number of the journal is italicized.
  • The issue number of a volume is not italicized!
  • The DOI (digital object identifier) is written as a hyperlink (so it begins with either "http://" or "https://").  

Example:

Legg, C., & Penn, C. (2013).  A stroke of misfortune: Cultural interpretations of aphasia in South Africa.  Aphasiology, 27(2), 126-144. http://doi.org/10.1080/02687038.2012.684338

Missing Issue Number

Note: The article in the example above includes the issue number of the volume of the journal.  The APA 7th edition of the Publication Manual states:  "Include the issue number for all periodicals that have issue numbers" (Rule 9.25 on page 294).  It also states:  "When periodical information (e.g., volume number, issue number, page range) is missing, omit it from the reference" (Rule 10.1 on page 316).  Therefore, if the issue number was missing from the journal's information, the citation would be written as in the example below.

Alternate example (when issue number is missing):

Legg, C., & Penn, C. (2013).  A stroke of misfortune: Cultural interpretations of aphasia in South Africa.  Aphasiology, 27, 126-144. http://doi.org/10.1080/02687038.2012.684338

"Print" Journal Article - When to Not Add a DOI

Note:  APA 7th edition of the Publication Manual states:  "Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.  If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include any DOI or URL in the reference" (Rule 9.34 on page 299).  Therefore if you find and use an article in print, search the library databases to see if the article is available online and, if so, what its DOI is.  If the article is not available online or does not have a DOI, follow the example below.

Alternate example (when article does not have a DOI):

Legg, C., & Penn, C. (2013).  A stroke of misfortune: Cultural interpretations of aphasia in South Africa.  Aphasiology, 27(2), 126-144.

How to Cite an Online Journal Article - With DOI

You might see information about an article's DOI similar to the examples below. Notice how the information may look different when researching different databases.

DOI number in different position than the next image

Versus

DOI number in different position than the previous image

Example of Citation in APA format:

Sekine, K., & Rose, M. L. (2013). The relationship of aphasia type and gesture production in people with aphasia. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22(4), 662-672. https://doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2013/12-0030)

Further Information

For more information on citing an online article with a DOI, see the 7th edition of the APA style manual:

  • Rule 9.35 and Rule 9.36 on pages 299 - 300.
  • Rule 10.1, with examples, on pages 316 - 319.

How to Cite an Online Journal Article - No DOI

An aritcle without DOI

Most recent online scholarly articles have a DOI. If a DOI is not available, proper APA style format is:

  • If the online journal article is not in a database, include the nondatabase URL.
  • If the online journal article is in most academic research databases, do not include the database name or the URL

Example

Consider the example of the online article on the right without a DOI.  The APA citation would be:

Katz, W. F., Bharadwaj, S. V., & Carstens, B.  (1999).  Electromagnetic articulography treatment for an adult with Broca's aphasia and apraxia of speech.  Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 42(6), 1355-1366. 

Further Information

For more information on citing an online article without a DOI, see the 7th edition of the APA style manual:

  • Rule 9.34 and Rule 9.35 on pages 298 - 300.
  • Rule 10.1, Example 2 and Example 3 on page 317.

In Text Citations - APA

Chapter 8 of the 7th edition of the APA style manual (pages 253 - 278) has general information and specific examples for in-text parenthetical citations.  A few examples of this type of citation are below.  For information on including page numbers of direct quotations, see Rules 8.25 through 8.27 on pages 270 - 273.

A work written by one author

  • In parentheses, give the author's last name, a comma, and the year of publication.
  • Example: (Nguyen, 2001) See Rule 8.17 on page 266.
  • For multiple sources with authors sharing the same last name, see Rule 8.19 and Rule 8.20 on pages 267 - 268.

A work written by multiple authors

  • For works by two authors list each one's last name, separated by an "&" symbol, a comma, and the year of publication.
  • Example: (Marx & Lennon, 1966)
  • "For works by three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus 'et al.' in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity..."
  • Examples: (Bradley, et al., 1994)
  • See Rule 8.17 on page 266.
  • For multiple works with three or more authors with the same in-text citation form, see Rule 8.18 on page 267.

A work with no author listed

  • If no author is given, use the title, a comma, and the year of publication.  Use quotation marks around the title of an article and italicize the title of a book.  Use title case capitalization for both--even the article title.
  • Example: (Manual on the Use of Thermocouples in Temperature Measurement, 1974.)
  • Example:  ("Title of an Article," 1999.)
  • See Rule 8.14 on pages 264 - 265.