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SES 1301: Foundations of SES

This course guide lays out, step-by-step, how to conduct and write your research paper for SES 1301.


Major Components of APA Citations

The list at the end of your paper of all the sources you used.
In-Text Citation
Flags information/ideas from other authors found within your paper to the source listed in your References.
Quotation & Paraphrasing
Separates your words from your references'.

APA Resources

1. References List

List references alphabetically by the first author's last name. When writing the authors in one entry, ensure to preserve the order of names as written in the article as this denotes the order of attribution.

Format by Item Type


LastName, F. M., LastName, F. M., & LastName, F. M. (PubYear). Title of the article: Note capitalization rule. Title of Journal with Caps, vol(num), pages.[article's doi] OR nothing


Trottier, C., & Robitaille, S. (2014). Fostering life skills development in high school and community sport: A comparative analysis of the coach’s role. Sport Psychologist, 28(1), 10-21.


LastName, F. M., & LastName, F. M. (PubYear). Title of book: Note capitalization rules. Publisher.[book doi] OR nothing


Dietzel, P. F. (2008). Call me coach: A life in college football. Louisiana State University Press.


LastName, F. M., & LastName, F. M. (PubYear). Title of chapter: Note capitalization rule. In F. M. EditorLast & F. M. EditorLast (Eds.), Title of book: Note capitalization rules (# ed., pp. pages). Publisher.[chapter doi] OR nothing


Gal, E., Cermak, S. A., & Ben-Sasson, A. (2007). Sensory processing disorders in children with autism: Nature, assessment, and intervention. In R. L. Gabriels & D. E. Hill (Eds.), Growing up with autism: Working with school-aged children and adolescents (pp. 95-123). The Guilford Press.


LastName, F. M., & LastName, F. M. (PubYear, Month Day). Title of work: Note capitalization rules. Website Name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, https://


Eckhardt, G. (n.d.). The San Antonio River. The Edwards Aquifer Website. Retrieved August 31, 2021,

Rules by Number of Authors

Single Author
LastName, F. M.
Two Authors
LastName, F. M., & LastName, F. M.
Three to Twenty Authors
LastName, F. M., LastName, F. M., & LastName, F. M.
Twenty-One or More Authors
AuthorOne, F. M., AuthorTwo, F. M., AuthorThree, F. M., AuthorFour, F. M., AuthorFive, F. M., AuthorSix, F. M., AuthorSeven, F. M., AuthorEight, F. M., AuthorNine, F. M., AuthorTen, F. M., AuthorEleven, F. M., AuthorTwelve, F. M., AuthorThirteen, F. M., AuthorFourteen, F. M., AuthorFifteen, F. M., AuthorSixteen, F. M., AuthorSeventeen, F. M., AuthorEighteen, F. M., AuthorNineteen, F. M., … LastAuthor, F. M.

Rules for Works by Same Author

Works with Different Publication Year
Place in order of oldest to newest. For example:
  • Smith, R. J. (2004)
  • Smith, R. J. (2016)
Works with Same Publication Year
Place references in alphabetical order by title. Then assign letters alphabetically on the end of the publication years. For example:
  • Smith, R. J. (2016a). Avoiding plagiarism…
  • Smith, R. J. (2016b). Searching for…
These years with letters will be used in your in-text citations.

2. In-Text Citations

In-text citation flags information found within your paper and ties it to your reference list. How a citation is formatted within your paper depends on:

  • If you're using a signal phrase or parenthetical citation
  • The number of authors your quotations has

Defining Signal Phrase and Parenthetical Citations

Signal Phrase (Narrative) Citation
You introduce your authors within your text. For example:
Smith (2016) found that "quotation goes here" (p. 215)
Parenthetical Citation
You only state a fact from your source and will quote the author(s) at the end. For example:
Water is wet (Smith & Kirk, 2016, p. 2016).

Citations based Number of Authors and Signal vs Parenthetical

For two authors, always list the authors in order that they are listed within your resource.

Works by One Author

Signal Phrase
Smith (2016) found that ... (p. 215).
(Smith, 2016, p. 215)

Works by Two Authors

Signal Phrase
Smith and Kirk (2016) found that.. (p. 215).
(Smith & Kirk, 2016, p. 215)

Works by Three or More Authors

Signal Phrase
Smith et al. (2016) found ... (p.215).
(Smith et al., 2016, p. 215)

When and How to Cite Page Numbers

When citing a specific piece of information from a source, you include page numbers.

  • Use p. when citing a single page
  • Use pp. when citing across several pages

3. Quoting vs Paraphrasing


Quotations are for direct reproduction of the author's words. How we format quotations is based on the length of the quote.

Less than 40 Words

These are considered to be short quotations. When citing, wrap the author's words in "double quotations."


Smith (2016) stipulated that "plagiarism ends your academic career" (p. 250).

40 or More Words

These are considered to be long quotations. When citing, you will need to create a quote block that is indented 1/2 inch for the entirety of the quote.


This is my own thought. However, I want to share a long quotation. Smith (2016) found that:

Here is the authors long but very important quotation. I am keeping the entire quote indented by 1/2 inch. This allows the reader to know that this is a very long quote and is separate from my own ideas (p. 45).

After the quote, I return to my own words and thus normal formatting.


Paraphrasing is used to summarize information from another author in your own words. It is generally used for:

  • Summarizing a key idea/finding
  • Summarizing the entirety of a resource

Multiple studies have concluded that bees are vital components of local ecosystems (Archer, 2001; Janeway, 1995; Kirk, 1968; Lorca, 2017; Picard, 1987; Sisko, 1999).


EndNote is a citation manager that allows you to:

  • Create and save citation lists.
    • Receive articles directly exported from databases.
    • Enter citation information manually.
    • Upload a citation list.
  • Format citations to common styles, including specific journal formats.
  • Share lists with researchers at WT or at other institutions.
  • Use from any internet capable device.
  • Use "Cite While You Write™" in MS Word to insert references and build your reference list as you write.

Three steps will create your account:

  1. Go to Web of Science.
  2. Select Sign In and then Register to create a personal account.
  3. Select EndNote in black navigation bar.
  4. You are ready to start working with citations!

After the one time account creation process, you can access EndNote directly or go through Web of Science. Account creation also lets you use email alerts, saved searches and other features.

Create a Group

Whenever starting a new project, paper, etc., select "Create a new group" from the EndNote homepage to best organize your citations.

Collect (Import) Citations

EndNote allows you to "collect" citations.

Online Searching
Currently not working.
New Reference
Manually enter your citation
Import References
Most databases offer you the ability to download an RIS file. EndNote allows you to upload the RIS file to your group.

Additionally, databases (such as EBSCO) offer the ability to directly import citations to EndNote. After directly loading your citation using this method, you will need to manually add it to your group.

Once you have all your resources added to EndNote, EndNote can create a bibliography for you by:

  1. Selecting "Format" from EndNotes Menu,
  2. Select the group you wish to create a Bibliography for,
  3. Select your citation style,
  4. Select the file format, and
  5. Select how you want to receive the bibliography.

Additionally, EndNote provides "Cite While You Write™", a Word/Internet Explorer plug-in that will help you write your in-text and bibliography while you right. Please see EndNote concerning this plugin. Note: If you're on an University computer, you will need to contact IT about getting this plug-in installed.

APA Format in Word