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EENG/MENG 4380: Mechanical Engineering Design

Why Cite?

Using someone else's words or ideas without giving them credit is called plagiarism. Avoid plagiarism by learning to correctly cite your sources any time you borrow from someone else. Be sure to use the correct citation format for your course. The Student Handbook: Categories of Academic Dishonesty outlines how plagiarism is defined at WT.

What is Style?

Writing styles are sets of standards for:

  • How to format a paper: font, margins, structure
  • How to structure citations, both within the text and for the list of sources at the end of the paper
  • The way a paper will be written: grammar, word usage, etc.
  • What counts as evidence in a discipline

Ask your professor what style you should be using! Use the resources bellow for more information.

ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME References:

In text references are sequentially numbered, enclosed in brackets: [1].

References are at the end of the paper are formatted:

  1. Reference to journal articles and papers in serial publications should include:
    • last name of each author followed by their initials
    • year of publication
    • full title of the cited article in quotes, title capitalization
    • full name of the publication in which it appears
    • volume number (if any) in boldface (Do not include the abbreviation, "Vol.")
    • issue number (if any) in parentheses (Do not include the abbreviation, “No.”)
    • inclusive page numbers of the cited article (include “pp.”)
  2. Reference to textbooks and monographs should include:
    • last name of each author followed by their initials
    • year of publication
    • full title of the publication in italics
    • publisher
    • city of publication
    • inclusive page numbers of the work being cited (include “pp.”)


IEEE Style Manual 2018

The following information is adapted from the IEEE Citation Reference.

For references with three or more authors, use et al. after the initials author's last name.

Reference Page


  • F. M. LastName, "Title fo chapter in the book," in Title of Published Work, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country [if not USA]: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx-xxx.
  • L. Stein, "Random patterns," in Computer and Your, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.


  • F. M. LastName, "Name of paper," Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.
  • R. E. Kalman, "New results in linear filtering and prediction theory," J. Basic Eng., ser. D, vol. 83, pp. 95-108, Mar. 1961.

Note: See the IEEE Citation Reference for IEEE Periodical Abbreviations.


  • Name of Manual/Handbook, x ed., Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, year, pp. xx-xx.
  • Transmission Systems for Communication, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44-60.


  • F. M. LastName, "Title of report," Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Rep. xxx, year.
  • J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, "Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna," Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.

Conferences Technical Articles

  • Basic
    • F. M. Author, "Title of paper," in Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State [if given], year, pp. xxx-xxx.
  • Electronic without Page Numbers
    • F. M. LastName and F. M. LastName, "Title of Article," in Title of Conf, year, © [copyright holder]. doi:xxxx.
  • Unpublished Paper Presented at Conference
    • F. M. LastName and F. M. LastName, "Title of paper," presented at the Unabbrev. Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, year.


  • N. M. LastName, (year, month day). Title (edition) [Type of medium]. Available: [URL]
  • J. Jones. (1991, May 10). Networks (2nd ed.) [Online]. Available:


  • F. M. LastName. (year, month day). Title (edition) [Type of medium]. Available e-mail: Message:
  • S. H. Gold. (1995, Oct 10). Inter-Network Talk [Online]. Available e-mail: COMSERVE@RPIECS Message: Get NETWORK TALK


  • F. M. LastName, "Title of patent," U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.
  • J. P. Wilkinson, "Nonlinear resonant circuit devices," U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.


  • Title of Standard, Standard number, date.
  • IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.

Theses and Dissertations

  • F. M. LastName, "Title of thesis/dissertation," [M.S. or Ph.D.] [theses or dissertation], Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ, Abrrev. State, year.
  • J. O. Williams, "Narrow-band analyzer," Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.


  • F. M. LastName, "Title of paper," unpublished.
  • F. M. LastName, private communication, Abbrev. Month, year.