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CSE Style

CSE Style is used in general sciences.


You might need to cite your sources using the ACS Style Guide. The basic preferred format for journal articles is:

  • Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; etc. Title of Article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. Year, Volume, Inclusive Pages.

The format for an article retrieved from a database is:

  • Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; etc. Title of Article. Abbreviated Title of Journal. Year, Volume, Inclusive Pages. Name of database url of top page (access date Month day, Year).

Specific formatting rules are:

  • Author names are separated by a semi-colon, and in the form Surname, First Initial. Middle Initial, Jr. (etc.). List all authors on the item, in the order given on the item.
  • Check the Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI) for journal title abbreviations. If the title is not listed, use the full title.
  • Publication date, and the following comma, are in bold-face font.
  • Full dates are listed as Month Day, Year. The months which are abbreviated are Jan Feb Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec. Examples: June 20, 2005. Or Oct 20, 2011.

Here are some examples:

  • An, J.; Tuan, C. Y.; Cheeseman, B. A; Gazonas, G. A. Simulation of Soil Behavior under Blast Loading. International Journal of Geomechanics. 2011, 11, 323-334. Academic Search Complete. (accessed Oct 20, 2011).
  • LoPresto, M. C. Experimenting with Musical Intervals. Phys. Educ. 2003, 38, 309-315.
  • Matthews, Q.; Jirasek, A.; Lum, J. J.; Brolo, A. G. Biochemical Signatures of in Vitro Radiation Response in Human Lung, Breast and Prostate Tumour Cells Observed with Raman Spectroscopy. Phys. Med. Biol. 2011, 56, 6839-6855. Institute of Physics Journals (accessed Oct 21, 2011).
  • Mizrahi, J.; Verbitsky, O.; Isakov, E; Daily, D. Effect of Fatigue on Leg Kinematics and Impact Acceleration in Long Distance Running. Human Movement Science. 2000, 19, 139-151. ScienceDirect (accessed Oct 21, 2011).

Chapter 14 of the ACS Guide shows citations for various other kinds of sources such as books, conference proceedings, dissertations, etc.

ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME References:

In text references are sequentially numbered, enclosed in brackets: [1].

References are at the end of the paper are formatted:

  1. Reference to journal articles and papers in serial publications should include:
    • last name of each author followed by their initials
    • year of publication
    • full title of the cited article in quotes, title capitalization
    • full name of the publication in which it appears
    • volume number (if any) in boldface (Do not include the abbreviation, "Vol.")
    • issue number (if any) in parentheses (Do not include the abbreviation, “No.”)
    • inclusive page numbers of the cited article (include “pp.”)
  2. Reference to textbooks and monographs should include:
    • last name of each author followed by their initials
    • year of publication
    • full title of the publication in italics
    • publisher
    • city of publication
    • inclusive page numbers of the work being cited (include “pp.”)

American Society of Civil Engineers

For the ASCE reference guidelines, consult the guide Author Services: Journals, ASCE Style ManualAuthor-Date References

The Basics:

  1. In-text citation is (Author Date)
    Single Author Two Authors Three or More Authors
    (Miller 2005) (Miller and Smith 2005) (Miller et al. 2005)
  2. Reference List Entry
    1. Journal Article Entry
      • Author(s). (Year). "Title of article in sentence style capitalization." Abr. Jrnl. Title, Vol(iss), inclusive page numbers.
      • EXAMPLE:
        • Stahl, D. C., Wolfe, R. W., and Begel, M. (2004). “Improved analysis of timber rivet connections.” J. Struct. Eng., 130(8), 1272-1279.


IEEE Style Manual 2018

The following information is adapted from the IEEE Citation Reference.

For references with three or more authors, use et al. after the initials author's last name.

Reference Page


  • F. M. LastName, "Title fo chapter in the book," in Title of Published Work, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country [if not USA]: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx-xxx.
  • L. Stein, "Random patterns," in Computer and Your, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70.


  • F. M. LastName, "Name of paper," Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year.
  • R. E. Kalman, "New results in linear filtering and prediction theory," J. Basic Eng., ser. D, vol. 83, pp. 95-108, Mar. 1961.

Note: See the IEEE Citation Reference for IEEE Periodical Abbreviations.


  • Name of Manual/Handbook, x ed., Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, year, pp. xx-xx.
  • Transmission Systems for Communication, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44-60.


  • F. M. LastName, "Title of report," Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, Rep. xxx, year.
  • J. H. Davis and J. R. Cogdell, "Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna," Elect. Eng. Res. Lab., Univ. Texas, Austin, Tech. Memo. NGL-006-69-3, Nov. 15, 1987.

Conferences Technical Articles

  • Basic
    • F. M. Author, "Title of paper," in Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State [if given], year, pp. xxx-xxx.
  • Electronic without Page Numbers
    • F. M. LastName and F. M. LastName, "Title of Article," in Title of Conf, year, © [copyright holder]. doi:xxxx.
  • Unpublished Paper Presented at Conference
    • F. M. LastName and F. M. LastName, "Title of paper," presented at the Unabbrev. Name of Conf., City of Conf., Abbrev. State, year.


  • N. M. LastName, (year, month day). Title (edition) [Type of medium]. Available: [URL]
  • J. Jones. (1991, May 10). Networks (2nd ed.) [Online]. Available:


  • F. M. LastName. (year, month day). Title (edition) [Type of medium]. Available e-mail: Message:
  • S. H. Gold. (1995, Oct 10). Inter-Network Talk [Online]. Available e-mail: COMSERVE@RPIECS Message: Get NETWORK TALK


  • F. M. LastName, "Title of patent," U.S. Patent x xxx xxx, Abbrev. Month, day, year.
  • J. P. Wilkinson, "Nonlinear resonant circuit devices," U.S. Patent 3 624 125, July 16, 1990.


  • Title of Standard, Standard number, date.
  • IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969.

Theses and Dissertations

  • F. M. LastName, "Title of thesis/dissertation," [M.S. or Ph.D.] [theses or dissertation], Abbrev. Dept., Abbrev. Univ., City of Univ, Abrrev. State, year.
  • J. O. Williams, "Narrow-band analyzer," Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, 1993.


  • F. M. LastName, "Title of paper," unpublished.
  • F. M. LastName, private communication, Abbrev. Month, year.